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Education Imagery in Poetry from Antiquity to the Twentieth Century - Notes

1. Anglo-Saxon spellings "lerne" and "teche" have been retained rather than modernizing to "learn" and "teach."

2. For further study of the notions of 'ut pictura poesis' see John Graham, "Ut pictura poesis," The Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Studies in Pivotal Ideas; Rensselaer W. Lee, "Ut pictura poesis: The Humanistic Theory of Painting," Art Bulletin 22 (1940); Cicely Davies, "Ut pictura poesis," Modern Language Review 30 (1935); Mario Praz, Mnemosyne: The Parallel between Literature and the Visual Arts (1970); Wesley Trimpi, "The Meaning of Horace's Ut pictura poesis," Journal of Warburg and Courtald Institutes 36 (1973)1-34; Ann Hurley and Kate Greenspan. So Rich a Tapestry: The Sister Arts and Cultural Studies. Lewisburg, PA, 1995; Eugene Huddleston, The Relationship of Painting and Literature. Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1978.

3. See Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, Alex Preminger (1974) for an excellent discussion and summary of the relationship and distinctions of poetry and history.

4. The initial search was conducted manually on Granger's Index to Poetry (3rd, 4th, 5th, and 8th editions). Soon after this was completed the Granger's Index to Poetry came out on CD-ROM. A new search was conducted electronically and cross-checked against the manual searches. The project was put on hold during a 1993-1994 academic year spent studying literature and critical theory at the Centre Parisien d'Etudes Critiques in Paris. Upon returning to the United States it was discovered that a revised edition of the Granger's Index to Poetry had been issued. This was consulted, as was a new product that appeared on the market, the CD-ROM version of Roth's Poetry Annual. Several other poetry indices were searched including multiple editions of the Index to Poetry for Children and Young People.

5. Themes and motifs in education iconography are based on the work in the visual arts by Professor Ayers Bagley, Professor and Director of Graduate Studies, Department of Education Policy and Administration, University of Minnesota. His three catalogs, produced for the Education Iconography Project, include Education Imagery in Ancient Greece: a selective catalogue of education iconography in the figurative arts of ancient Greece, 6th to 1st centuries B.C. (1977),Education Imagery in the Art of the West: Middle Ages, a selective catalogue of education iconography in the figurative arts of western societies, 5th through 14th centuries (1976-1978), and Education Imagery in the Art of the West: Modern Era, a selective catalogue of education iconography in the figurative arts of western societies, 15th to the 19th centuries (1977). Additional useful sources are F.A.G. Beck, Album of Greek Education: The Greeks at School and Play. Sydney: Cheiron Press, 1976; F.A.G. Beck, Greek Education: 450-350 B.C. London: Methuen, 1964; F.A.G. Beck, Bibliography of Greek Education and related topics. Sydney: Cheiron Press, 1986; Werner Jaeger.Paideia: The Ideals of Greek Culture. Volumes I-III. Translated from the German by Gilbert Highet. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1965 (1939); and James Hall, Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols in Art. New York: Icon Editions, 1974

6. Samuel Popper makes a convincing argument for the use of the art object as an historic record in Pathways to the Humanities in School Administration (1985, 71). Popper cites Jacob Burkhardt, a nineteenth-century Swiss historian at Basel University as 'the first to include in disciplined scholarship works of art as a usable record of the past,' thereby laying the foundation for scholarship in the social history of art. His successor, Heinrich Wolfflin, took it one step further in locating the work of art as 'a communication whose style could be subjected to disciplined analysis for hidden historical information.' Erwin Panofsky and other German art historians furthered the groundwork for identifying art objects as valid historical documents whose textual and contextual references can be established by disciplined analysis. For further research on the iconographic approach see these works by Erwin Panofsky: Idea; a Concept in Art Theory. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1968; Symbols in Transformation: Iconographic Themes at the Time of the Reformation. Princeton, NJ: 1969; Studies in Iconology: Humanistic Themes in the Art of the Renaissance. New York: Harper and Row, 1972;Meaning in the Visual Arts: Papers in and on Art History. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1955; Lavin, Irving (ed.). Meaning in the visual arts: views from the outside; a centennial commemoration of Erwin Panofsky (1892-1968). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995; and Greene, Theodore (ed.). Meaning in the Humanities: Five Essays. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1938.

7. See also Robert Glaser, "Concept Learning and Concept Teaching," Learning Research and School Subjects (1968); and Henri van de Waal, Iconclass: An Iconographic Classification System. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Company, 1973-1985

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